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The Hidden Canine Treasures Of Asia

While it is just another day out for most up to the minute dog breeds in almost any country on any given weekend, there are some breeds not given any thought to at all by most fanciers. As these weekends roll on toward being done and dusted, adjudicators thereto having weaved their magic over a countless number of exhibits, it is an unforgivable sin really to have not given any thought to those breeds not commonly seen every day unless one happens to be in their own country; breeds which are highly regarded by the local fanciers, in some cases honored by governments as a national treasure.

We seem to unknowingly, unwittingly, forget any other odd breed in the species unless, we are actually engaged in breeding, judging, or happen to be where they are in their own environment.

These are the Hidden Canine Treasures of Asia.

They comprise, The Thai Ridgeback, The Thai Bangkaew, The Mudhol Hounds of India, the Japanese Akita, the Taiwan Dog, The Jindo Dog of Korea, The Kintamani Bali Dog of Indonesia, and the four Native dogs of Vietnem. In recent times, some of these breeds have begun to make an impact on the end results at the highest level of the award system so often bestowed on those breeds regarded as well established, regular, popular, and well known.

When we take the words “well established” into perspective, it certainly becomes clear that perhaps we may have had the wrong end of the stick for some time so to speak. It is fact that these Asian treasures have in their own particular way been well established on at least equal footing with those breeds mostly regarded as long established and regular. We have really been in serious error; in short, simply been guilty of just not bothering to notice that there is more to this Asia than meets the eye.

Not the least of these Asian breeds and probably the best known at this time as a show dog is the Thai Ridgeback. Often found in the major awards at the highest level of supreme Best in Show not only at home but also abroad. Such was the case in September 2013 when young owner / handler, Mind Supasin, (pictured) traveled from Thailand to Europe for the Geneva FCI International CAC / CACIB All Breed Dog Show. Here, Mind, with his bitch, Th. Ch. United Joe’s Angel Pha-rung-A Roon, went Best in show under All Rounder and FCI President Rafael Santiago.

Thai Ridgeback

The Thai Ridgeback Dog, also known as a Thailand Ridgeback, TRD, Mah Thai, or Mah Thai Lang Ahn, is the national dog of Thailand. It is speculated that the dog or its descendants may be one of the oldest dog breeds known to man. The history of this magnificent breed dates back to ancient times and remains the subject of numerous theories. The Thai Ridgeback is generally considered a primitive type dog, which can be traced back to the origins of the dog itself as it evolved from wolf to dingo to our domestic dog. History may prove dingoes began and evolved in Asia. To date, some of the earliest known dingo-like fossils are from Ban Chiang in Northeast Thailand and date back close to 6000 years BC. Given the ancient history of the Thai Ridgeback Dog it is very difficult to prove the exact origin of the breed.

The Thai Ridgeback Dog it is very difficult to prove the exact origin of the breed.

It is generally speculated that the Thai Ridgeback originated in Eastern Thailand. Because of the isolation of the islands in which this dog lived, the type has remained consistent over the centuries. The basic isolation of the dog in Asia protected this breed from crossbreeding. Thailand was once inhabited by people who are kept mostly in isolation due to poor or nonexistent transportation systems. This is why the Thai Ridgeback is considered a relatively pure and undoubtedly original breed. The dog was the only possession of some of the people, thus making the dogs extremely important to their owners. The dog provided a valuable source of sustenance due to its indispensable skills when hunting, its excellent qualities of sight, speed, agility and perseverance. The Thai Ridgeback was a prized possession. The dogs were more than capable of capturing small animals such as rabbits and small boar. While the family was away or at work in the fields, the Thai dog was a tremendous watchdog and was used to stand guard over one’s home protecting possessions and ridding the home of dangerous pests such as snakes and rodents.

The earliest known areas with the highest population of the breed were the eastern areas of Thailand. There the dog could be found in greater numbers, particularly in the eastern fishing ports, which most likely was responsible for the relatively small expansion of the breed. The breed habitat is not only limited to Thailand. The Thai dog can also be found in a few other small isolated areas in Asia. The Thai dog may also be found in areas such as Kamphuchea (Cambodia), in Indonesia and on the island of Phu Quoc. Phu Quoc island in the Gulf of Siam is about 200 km eastwards from Bangkok. Phu Quoc island is the place where the dog was first truly recognized by the Western civilization during colonization of the island in the 19th century. On this island the Thai Ridgeback is believed to have given rise to the much smaller Phu Quoc dog. Of the hundreds of breeds in existence today, only three breeds posses the unique “ridgeback”. The Thai Ridgeback, the Phu Quoc, and arguably the most famous of the three, the Rhodesian Ridgeback.

Cave Painting Tum Pra Toon, Thailand

Archeological drawings of dogs closely resembling the Thai Ridgeback have been found in caves in Asia that are estimated to date back approximately 3000 years. Written documentation of the Thai Ridgeback breed can be found in Asian manuscripts dating back over 350 years. An ancient manuscript of the period of King Songthan of Ayuttaya (1611 to 1628) describes the Ridgeback as follows:

“The dogs are big. They are more than two sawk tall. (One sawk is a traditional measurement which equals the length from an adult’s elbow to his fingertips.) They appear in a variety of colors and each dog has a ridge on the back. They are fierce. They are loyal to their masters. They are able to feed themselves, digging the earth in search of small prey. They like to follow their owner, to hunt in the woods. When they catch an animal, they will bring it to their master. They are loyal to the entire household. They love their companionship. They go everywhere with their masters, even as far as the big yang tree. They are powerful and fearless…. Their ears are pointed erect and their tails stand like the swords of tribesmen.”

The relationship between the Rhodesian and Thai Ridgeback is uncertain despite some speculation the Thai dog accompanied fisherman of Eastern Thailand to the continent of Africa during the course of trade. There is however no scientific proof that the Thai and the Rhodesian are related.

Currently it is estimated there are less than 3000 outside of Thailand and only a few hundred in the United States. Even in Thailand the number of registered dogs is in the low thousands, qualifying the Thai Ridgeback as a truly rare breed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE : Medium-sized dog with short hair forming a ridge along the back. The body is slightly longer than its height at withers. Muscles are well developed, and its anatomical structure is suitable for activities.



IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS
Length of body : size (height at the withers) = 11 : 1O
Height of chest : size (height at the withers) = 5 : 1O
Length of the muzzle : length of the head = 2 : 3

Behaviour/Temperament :
Tough and active with excellent jumping ability.

Head

Cranial Region: The crown is flat and has a gentle slope toward the stop.
Stop : Clearly defined, but moderate. Inclination is not abrupt.

Facial Region
Nose : Colour is black
Nasal bridge : Straight and long
Muzzle : Wedge-shaped. Dogs with fawn or red coat can have a black mask.
Lips : Tight
Mouth : Black marking(s) on the tongue
Jaw : Upper jaw is thick enough and lower jaw is strong
Teeth : White and strong with scissors bite
Eyes : Middle size and almond shaped. The eye colour is dark brown. In blues and silvers, amber-coloured eyes are permitted.
Ears : Set on either side of the crown, which is slightly broad between the two ears. Rather large triangular, inclining forward and firmly pricked. Not cropped.
NECK : Strong, muscular, holding head high.
BODY 
Back : Strong
Loin : Strong and broad
Croup : Moderately round
Chest : Deep enough to reach the elbows. The rib is well built, but it is not barrel-shaped.
Lower line : The belly is tucked up.
TAIL : It has a thick base with gradual tapering toward the tip. The tip reaches hock joints. It holds up vertically or curves like sickle tail.
LIMBS 
Front legs : The forearm straight
Hind legs : Well developed thighs and well bent stifles. Hocks are tough.
Nails : The nails are black or light through brown.
GAIT : Stride with no pitching nor rolling of the body. Track in two parallel straight lines. When viewed from the front, the forelegs move up and down in straight lines so that the shoulder-, elbow- and pastern joints are approximately in line with each other. When viewed from the rear, the stifle and hip joints are approximately in line. Move in a straight pattern forward without throwing the feet in or out; thus enabling the stride to be long and drive powerful. The overall appearance of the moving dog is one of smooth flowing and well-balanced rhythm.
SKIN : Soft, tender and tight skin.
COAT :
Hair : Short and smooth. The ridge is formed by the hair growing in the opposite direction to the rest of the coat, starting from the withers and extending to the point of prominence of hips. It should be clearly defined from other parts of the back tapering and symmetrical.
Colour : Solid colour : fawn, light chestnut red through to deep red, pure black, silver and blue. N.B The fawn and red colours are allowed black masks on muzzle and black on the tail.
SIZE : 
Height at the withers:
Dogs 22-25 inches (56-63.5cm)
Bitches 20-23 inches (51-58.5cm)
FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree. 
- Any bite other than scissors bite
- Unbalanced ridge
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS : – Dogs without ridge/ Long hair 
N.B.: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Following close behind the Thai Ridgeback in Popularity and often in the winning circles is the Thai Bangkaew. Said to have its origins from the Thailand Monasteries, the Thai Bangkaew Dog is a breed of dog from Thailand.  A fairly recent breed, the origins of the dog dates back only 100 years.  The Bangkaew was recognized by the FCI on November 12 2011 and is eligible for CAC and CACIB awards although still not yet recognized by any major kennel control. However, the Breed has had a rather quick rise in popularity in very recent times and this non recognition is expected by the fanciers to have a major turn around.

The Thai Bangkaew

The origin of the Thai Bangkaew Dog began in a village in the Phitsanulok Province called Bangkaew.  Near the village there is a monastery called Wat (Temple) Bangkaew.  The legend says the Abbot was given a native dog with long fur that was already in whelp.  Some believe that the father of may have been either jackal or dhole, and the result was four females pups with long hair and black or brown in color.  These dogs mated with herding dogs in a neighboring village.  Seasonal raining created a natural barrier that excluded other dogs from adding to the gene pool.  Eventually these dogs were selectively bred to create the Thai Bangkaew Dog.

The breed traces its ancestry back to crosses between the Buddhist Abbots local black and white female, and a now extinct wild dog producing today’s breed type. In or about the mid 1970’s, selective breeding from single litters had produced their generations to the present day. The Thai Bangkaew Dog is regarded as very precious heritage of Phitsanulok Province. These dogs are bred widely within the Province and have become more Nation wide and now bred over most areas of Thailand.
  Thai Bangkaew Dogs are natural watchdogs.  They are protective of their home and family, while aloof toward strangers.  This breed is highly active and prone to digging.  Although devoted to their masters and intelligent they can be difficult to train as they are stubborn breed.  These dogs love to dig, and this is not something that they can be trained not to do.  Early socialization of the Thai Bangkaew Dog is recommended for other dogs and humans, they tend to be aggressive towards dogs 0f the same sex.

Thai Bangkaew Dog Breed Standard

Thai Bangkaew Dogs are medium sized and belong to the spitz family of dogs.  They stand between 17-21 inches and weigh between 35-46 pounds.  Like most spitz they have erect, triangular ears and have a curled tail that is carried along the back.  They have a double coat with longer hairs that form a ruff around their neck, which is more noticeable on males then females.  The Thai Bangkaew Dog is white with shades of red, gray, brown, or black in a variety of patterns.



General appearance are medium size dog. square structure, vigorous muscle and have active movement. Behavior are alert, confident, fearless, honest, clever, agile and can train it.

Shape are thick and muscular when standing, the legs are vertical to the ground and erect the neck and the face.
Head is large that proper to the body. Bridge of the nose has slight angle.
Black nose that proper to the body
Mouth is medium length and slender
Teeth are small and sharp.
Eyes are small and same almond seed.
Ears are forward, triangle that proper to the body and have soft hair at base and behind of the ears.
Neck is large, muscular and have mane.
Back is straight.
Chest is broad and deep.
Hip is large, strong and has hair at this to hock joint.
Large base of tail, bunch hair and tip of tail curve to back.
Front legs large than hind legs when standing are straight and parallel and joint are slightly oblique angle. Behind the legs have long hair.
Round paws and have long hair cover the paws.
Coat Medium length with 2 layers of hair that inner layer are soft hair and outer layer are large and straight.

THE MUDHOL HOUNDS of INDIA

These impressive Mudhol or Caravan, Maratha, and Pashmi Hounds, (known by several names), are to all intent and purpose regarded as one and the same when It comes to the written word. The main single difference is in the Pashmi Hound which comes with a feathered, fringed, silky coat.

Mudhol or Caravan, Maratha, and Pashmi Hounds

In recent times, this National Hound of India has impressed in the show ring with awards equaling those of the more popular breeds seen often in the winners circle. The breed drew a record entry of 70 Caravans for the Ooty, India, September 2013 FCI Asia and Pacific Section Show, the Best of Breed winner went on to take Best in Group.

The Caravan Hound is a slender breed of sight Hound. Their head is narrow, long, and features a tapered muzzle with a large, dark nose. Despite their delicate appearance, the jaws of this breed are strong and powerful. The breed’s large eyes are oval-shaped and may be any color between amber and dark hazel. The Caravan Hound has a long, lean, muscular neck that fits properly into its laid-back shoulders. The forelegs are long, lean, and well-boned, and the back is well-muscled and curved over the loin. They have strong, deep chests with well-sprung ribs and a tucked in abdomen. The tail of this breed is strong at its base, and it is set low and carried in a curve. The Caravan Hound has one of two varieties of coat textures. The first is short-haired and smooth, and the second is feathered, fringed, and silky to the touch. The breed’s coat exists in a number of colors.

Characteristically, the Caravan Hound is somewhat aloof and independent. Rather than catering to the wants and wishes of their master, they tend to approach tasks on their own terms. They are highly intelligent and they are capable, keen hunters. The breed is suspicious of strangers, but they are loyal and protective of their owner(s) and territory. They do not like to be touched by anyone other than their master. They will protect their home and family if a threat presents itself. It’s especially important for this breed to receive a significant amount of socialization from an early age.

There is a six inch difference between the lower height limit and te maximum height given, standing between 23 and 29 inches at the withers, These measurements are applicable to both gender. Maximum weight is up to 100 pounds.

Only the strongest and most hardy Caravan Hounds have withstood the test of time. For this reason, there are no recorded health issues or concerns. This breed typically lives for 10 to 15 years

Historically, the Caravan Hound is an ancient breed that is native to the Deccan Plateau of India. The Deccan Plateau includes some parts of the states, as well as the regions of Maharashtra, Karnataka, and parts of the Andhra Pradesh. The Caravan is best described as an offshoot of the Saluki. It was first introduced to the region by traders and mercenaries that arrived from Asia by way of caravan. These people began calling the Caravan Hound “karwani”, or “of the caravans”. Even after the breed was re-named by the Kennel Club of India, this name continued to be utilized in the villages of this area. Throughout the region of Karnataka, the Caravan Hound is often called “Mudhol Hound”, a name that was given to the breed after the small town in the Bijapur district. Sri Srimanth Raja Molojirao Gorphade, a former ruler of Mudhol, had given a pair of Caravan Hounds to King George V of England. The King loved the dogs and called them “the hounds of Mudhol”. The breed is not only found in Mudhol, so the officially recognized name continues to be “Caravan Hound”. Feathered types of Caravan Hounds may also be called “Pashmi”.

The Caravan Hound is an extremely rare breed of sight hound from Maharashtra. Its history goes back into the mists of time. It is also found along the Maharashtra / Karnataka border up to Kolhapur. The smooth Saluki is a very close relative of the Caravan along with the Sloughi. It is said that these three breeds along with Azawakhs and Afghan Hounds all developed in the middle-east around the same time. The name Caravan Hound might originate from two different sources. First, because they were seen coming to India with the traveling Caravans from the middle-east as well as Afghanistan. Second, from the name Karwar Hound;. In the old days, ships used to sail on wind currents blowing towards the south. Thus they landed up in Karwar, just south of Goa. From there, hounds might have gotten loose and hunted their way up to the Maharashtra/Karnataka border and inter-bred. The Caravans of today look a very much like all of their ancestors. They always have a smooth coat that usually comes in the colors of red, fawn, cream, beige and off white; which match the Caravans hunting area in the fields and tropical rainforests of central India. They are elegant, graceful and courageous; their expression dignified, the eyes piercing.

The Caravan’s hunting method is similar to that of a Saluki. Once game is sighted the hound is released, it sprints at its prey making many mid-air turns and twists as it courses. They do not stalk prey like for example, the Pashmis does. Once caught, they either suffocate the larger prey or give a vigorous jerk. They do not retrieve, but will try to devour their prey instead. For this reason the hunter must follow his hounds fast, in order not to lose his catch. In their native tracts the Caravans are bred as true working hounds. The Caravan is currently recognized by the Kennel Club of India and the Indian National Kennel Club. It has excellent potential as a hound, a show dog, and first and foremost, as a loyal companion.

The smooth variety of Caravan Hound does not require any method of grooming. The feathered type of Caravan Hound should be brushed on a regular basis as it is at best an average shedder The breed is not suited for life in a small household or apartment. They are a sight hound and need a great deal of daily exercise. They are happiest with at least a large-sized, fenced yard. They don’t care for cold, wet climates, as they are used to tropical weather conditions. They need human interaction, and they aren’t accustomed to spending long periods of time in a kennel or crate. They need to feel as though they are an important part of the family. The Caravan Hound shouldn’t be let off its leash, because they are likely to chase after any interesting scent.

THE JAPANESE AKITA.

The History of the infamous Akita Hachiko, his love and devotion for his owner professor Hidesaburo Ueno, and his virgil at the Shibuya Railway Station when his owner did not return home from work one evening or ever again, is well known by everyone who ever loved a dog I’m sure! Such is the devotion to this breed by the Japanese people.

Japanese-style Akita

The Akita “Tachibana” one of the few Akitas to survive the war.

The Japanese Akita

Pictured here on a Japanese 1953 issue postage stamp

Japanese History, both verbal, and written, describe the ancestors of the Akita, the Matagi dog one of the oldest of the native dogs. Today’s Akita developed primarily from dogs in the northernmost region of the island of Honshu in the Akita Profecture, thus providing the breed’s name.

There is and has been ongoing debate among fanciers whether there are two separate breeds of Akita. To date, only the AKC, and the CKC consider the American and Japanese style Akita to be two varieties of the same breed, allowing free breeding, The FCI, the Kennel Club, The New Zealand Kennel Club, The Australian National Kennel Council, and the Japan Kennel Club consider Japanese and American style Akitas as separate breeds Some countries refer to the American style Akita as simply the “Akita” and not the American Akita. The issue is especially controversial in Japan. For the 84 countries linked to the FCI, the breed split formally occurred June 1999, when the FCI decided that the American type would be called the Great Japanese Dog, later renamed the American Akita in January 2006.

In 1931, the Akita was officially declared a Japanese National Monument. The Mayor of Odate City in Akita Profecture, organized the Akita Inu Hozankai to preserve the original Akita as a Japanese natural treasure through careful breeding. In 1934 the first Japanese breed standard for the Akita Inu was listed, following the breeds declaration as a natural monument of Japan. In 1967, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Akita Dog Preservation Society, the Akita Dog Museum was built to house information, documents and photos.

As a Spitz breed, the appearance of the Akita reflects cold weather adaptations essential to their original function. Akita is a substantial breed for its height with heavy bones.. Characteristic physical traits of the breed include a large, bear-like head with erect, triangular ears set at a slight angle following the arch of the neck. Additionally, the eyes of the Akita are small, dark, deeply set and triangular in shape. Akita’s have thick double coats, and tight, well knuckled cat-like feet. Their tails are carried over the top of the back in a gentle or double curl down the loin.

Mature American type males measure typically 26–28 inches (66–71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100–130 lb (45–59 kg). Mature females typically measure 24–26 inches (61–66 cm) and weigh between 70–100 lb (32–45 kg). The Japanese type, as stated in the breed standards, are a little smaller and lighter.

Breed standards state that all dog breed coat colors are allowable in the American style Akita, however, the Japanese style Akitas, as per the breed standards, are restricted to red, fawn, sesame, brindle, pure white. All colors are with the typical Shiba Inu “Urajiro” markings, whitish coat on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, on the underside of jaw, neck, chest, body and tail and on the inside of the legs. There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat. The long coat is considered a fault in the show ring,

Since it is a large, powerful dog, the Akita is not considered a breed for a first time owner. The Akita is a large, strong, independent and dominant dog. A dog with the correct Akita temperament should be accepting of non-threatening strangers, yet protective of their family when faced with a threatening situation. They are usually docile, aloof and calm in new situations. As a breed they should be good with children, it is said that the breed has an affinity for children. Not all Akita’s will necessarily have the same temperament.

The Akita was never bred to live or work in groups like many hound and sporting breeds. Instead, they lived and worked alone or in pairs, a preference reflected today. The Akita is intelligent, courageous, fearless, and careful, spontaneous, it needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader.

Brindle Akita dogs

THE TAIWAN DOG

At first glance it could look like your average stray dog, but the rare purebred Formosan is anything but average
A companion that will protect and obey you is no easy thing to come by. And if you value loyalty above all else you can’t do much better than buy a purebred Formosan dog (also known as a Taiwan dog) As a Multi-purpose breed, “The Formosan” has more capabilities than most other breeds: It can be a guard dog, a companion, a hunting dog and a stunt dog. It is very intelligent and loyal,”

Traditionally kept by Aboriginals as a hunting dog, the breed is athletic and has a jaw like a vice grip. This tenacity, coupled with the Formosan’s famous loyalty makes it an excellent guard dog, even though it may be considered a touch on the small side. Their medium-small frame can pack tonnes of attitude. If exposed to only one person during most of the formative first year, a Formosan will become fierce towards strangers. Fanciers however believe that as with many other dog breeds, Formosans will only attempt to bite if they feel threatened.

Taiwan Dogs are originally Native Taiwanese dogs, decedents of the South Asian hunting dogs called “Pariah Dog” which ancient local inhabitants lived with in the central mountainous districts. The breed was the loyal companion of the ancient hunter in the wild forest In 1990, a cooperative study was carried out by scholars of the National Taiwan university, the Japanese GIFO University, and the Nagoya University on the subject of Native Taiwan dogs. They visited twenty nine tribes of inhabitants. As a result, it was confirmed that the present Taiwan Dog is a descendent of the South Asian Hunting Dogs. This breed is now popular all across the Island as a watch and companion dog.

Taiwan Dogs are originally Native Taiwanese dogs, decedents of the South Asian hunting dogs called “Pariah Dog”

There are two small types of the Formosan Mountain Dog; one is about 40 centimetres (16 in) tall at the shoulder, and the other is around 30 centimetres (12 in). However, the latter one was not found during the research conducted by Dr. Sung Yung-yi in 1976. The medium type of the Formosan Mountain Dog has a shoulder height under 50 centimetres (20 in), with a firm and fit body, slim waist, big chest, and half-covered ears. The most common type of these three in recent years, is the medium-sized dog. Its color can range from black to earthy yellow or yellowish brown, and the nose is black. Black coating on the tongue is one of the most distinguished traits of the Formosan Mountain Dog.

Dr. Sung of National Taiwan University and Mr. Ming Jie, Xu of Formosan Dog & Guard Dogs Breeding Center described a typical Formosan as having almond eyes, firm jaw strength, black coating on the tongue, a triangular face, thin prick ears, and a sickle tail. The tail is upright or curved with a thick fur coat, but the belly is hairless; the tail is used to warm the belly, and may even be long enough to protect the snout from insects. The dog is also well known for being well-balanced.

Formosan dogs are particularly agile, they are known for their hopping skill. especially when they are hunting small animals, such as rats. When they are startled or trying to intimidate their target, they will hop sideways back and forth. Unlike other hunters, Formosan dogs will release their bite – it does not hold its bite on the target. This habit is traced back to early boar hunting. Taiwan Aborigines used 5-6 Formosan dogs to circle a wild boar, and each dog would work to wound the boar. They would release their bite once they had attacked it, and wait for the next attack again and again until the boar was exhausted enough for their master move in for the final kill using a spear.

The Formosan is a high energy, loyal, affectionate, and intelligent breed that learns very quickly. In unfamiliar situations though, they tend to be wary of strangers and sounds, and at times, they can possibly become fear-aggressive. In new situations where the dog is fear-aggressive, it can take a few days before the dog will calm down.

If comfortable and well-trained, the Formosan will be friendly to people and other animals, though they tend to be a bit aloof or suspicious of strangers, once they have bonded with their owner. Once bonded, they are extremely loyal and affectionate to their owners.

Due to the breed’s alertness, these dogs can make great guard dogs, but if not well-trained, the Formosan can become overly protective and aggressive towards strangers.

Standard
A medium sized dog with triangular head, almond eyes,thin prick ears and sickle tail. Dry, sinewy, and well balanced.

Proportions
Depth of chest:height at withers = 4.5:10 to 4.7:10
Height at withers:length of body = 10:10.5, bitches can be slightly longer.
Length of muzzle:length of skull = 4.5:5.5.

Size & weight
Height: Dogs: 48–52 cm (19–20 in) Bitches: 43–47 cm (17–19 in)
Weight: Dogs: 14 to 18 kg (31 to 40 lb) Bitches: 12 to 16 kg (26 to 35 lb)

Temperament: Extremely faithful to his master, keen in sense, alert in movement, bold and fearless.

Head
Cranial Region:Forehead: Broad and roundish, without wrinkles.
Skull: The skull is slightly longer than the muzzle.
Stop: Well defined with a slight furrow.
Facial Region :Nose: Moderate size. Wide nostrils. Black in color, but can be slightly lighter in all colors except for the ones with black fur.
Muzzle: Flat nasal bridge. Tight lips, without flews. The muzzle tapers a little from the base to the nose, but it is not pointed at the tip.
Jaws/teeth: Jaws are strong. Scissors bite, teeth are set square to the jaws.
Cheeks: Well developed and slightly protruding.
Eyes: Almond in shape. Dark brown in colour. Brown is also acceptable, but yellow or light eyes should be avoided.
Ears: Pricked, set on sides of the skull at an angle of 45 degrees. Inside of the outline is straight, while outside of the outline is slightly rounded.
Neck: Muscular, strong, good length, slightly arched. Without dewlap..

Body:
General: Sinewy and muscular, nearly square in shape.
Back: Straight and short. Withers well developed.
Loin: Firmly muscled.
Croup: Broad. Flat or very slightly sloping and short.
Chest: Fairly deep yet not reaching the elbow. Forechest slightly protruding. Ribs are well sprung.
Belly: Well tucked up.
Tail: In the shape of a sickle, set on high, carried erect, active, with the tip curving forward.

Limbs & Forequarters:
Shoulders: Well muscled. Shoulder blades are laid back. They should meet the upper arms at an angle of 105-110 degrees.
Elbows: Close to the body.
Forearms: Straight and parallel to each other.
Metacarpus (Pasterns): Firm.
Hindquarters: Hindlegs should be slender, with good bone, well muscled and parallel to each other. The rear angulation should be in balance to the front.
Upper thighs: Broad, sloping and well bent at the stifle.
Lower thighs: Should be in balance with upper thighs.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Perpendicular to the ground.
Feet turning neither in nor out. Pads are firm and thick. Nails are black in color, but lighter colors are acceptable in all colors except for those with black coats.
Gait/movement: Powerful gait with reaching stride. Agile enough to easily turn 180 degrees quickly.
Coat/hair: Short and hard, lying tight to the body. Length is between 1.5 and 3 cm (0.6 and 1.2 in).
Color: Black, brindle, fawn, white, white and black, white and fawn, white and brindle

THE JINDO DOG OF KOREA

There appears to be no written record of the origins of the Korean Jindo Dog. Authorities agree that the Jindos originated and existed on Jindo Island for a long time. There have been many theories regarding its origins, one of these describing the Jindo as cross-breeds with Mongolian dogs when Mongol forces invaded Korea around the 13th century.

Korean Jindo Dog

They are now a protected species under the Cultural Properties Protection Act.

In 1962, the Government of South Korea designated the Jindo as the 53rd “Natural Treasure” (or translated from the language as “Natural Monument”) and passed the Jindo Preservation Ordinance. Because of the special status of the Jindo, it is very difficult to export purebred Jindo outside of Korea. Along with athletes, Jindos marched in the opening ceremonies, of the 1988 Summer Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea. The Jindo Dogs Guild of Korea, as of 2008, issues certificates of pure Korean Jindo Dog, which specifies the registered number of the mother, sex, and birth date of the dog, as well as breeder’s address and whether the dog is of pure breeding.
The breed first appeared in the West in France and has since made its way over to the U.S. There are 25 registered Jindos in the United Kingdom Also, the Korean government and Samsung have contributed to efforts to gain international recognition for the Jindo.

Jindo dog.

The Jindo is renowned for outstanding hunting ability, due to their courage, cunning, and pack sensibility. Besides the usual prey of medium to large game, their hunting prowess is displayed in a legend of three Jindos that bought down a Siberian Tiger.

They were mainly used as deer and boar hunters. Anecdotal reports tell of Korean owners being awakened by their Jindo one morning to be led deep into the forest to a deer the dog had taken down alone. There have also been reported cases in America of intruding coyotes being killed by Jindos defending their territory. In traditional Korean hunting without firearms, a pack of well trained Jindos was extremely valuable. A master with a loyal pack could hunt without much trouble at all, for when the pack brings down a deer, boar or other quarry, one of them returns to the master to lead him to the prey, while the others stand guard against scavengers.

It is generally accepted that this breed is not suitable as a search and rescue dog due entirely to it’s strong hunting instincts and loyalty to one master. Because of these factors, it has been documented that the Jindo is very likely to lose focus on the mission and will not be truly tractable to frequent changes of handlers as often occurs. There are similar concerns with the breed as Military dogs, noted by the Korean Security Foorum in 2010 as being highly likely to escape their duties in order to find their first Handler or original home, so strong is the bond.

Efforts by the Los Angeles Police Department to train the breed as a patrol dog also fell short of the requirements.. The breed was declared as being not of the correct disposition for the work involved because they too easily distracted and eager to please the handler.

As an indication of the strength of instinct and loyalty, there is the anecdotal story of 7 year old Beakgu sold to a new home some 300km away from her 83 year old owner / breeder. The bitch escaped the new owner premises and after 7 months had returned to her original owner where she lived until age 14. The story became a national sensation, creating a Korean cartoon, a TV Documentary, and a children’s story book. In 2004, the local Jindo County erected a monument of Baekgu to honor the dog and the breed.

The Jindo is a double-coated spitz-type dog. Much like the Dingo developed in Australia, the Jindo Gae is the natural or feral dog of a particular island of Korea. Distinguishing the Jindo breed from mixes and other breeds is often done by close examination of cranial and facial features and by analyzing the proportion of the head to the body. In addition, the breed exhibits sexual dimorphism with females having more angular heads than males. The keen and alert appearance of the Jindo gives the impression of intelligence, strength, and agility. Their posture and build is similar to the Akita. It also shares similar physical traits, though noticeably different in size.

Korean Jindo owners have traditionally divided Jindos into two body types:

Tonggol or Gyupgae: This type is more muscular and stocky with the Korean National Dog Association (KNDA) recognizing an equal proportion of height at the withers to length (10:10). The depth of chest is approximately equal to one-half the height at the withers. The loin is also typically shorter.

Hudu or Heutgae: This type is more slender with a somewhat less depth of chest and a slightly longer loin. Moreover, other physical features tend to have an increased length, such as the ears, muzzle, and head. This results in an appearance that is longer than tall with the KNDA recommending a height at the withers to length ratio of 10:11.

The KNDA also recognizes a third body type called Gakgol which is a gradually emerging combination of the two traditional types, retaining the length of body of the Hudu and the depth of chest of the Tonggol.

In regards to the Jindo’s body appearance, the United Kennel Club currently states, “The squarely built Jindo has a chest that is moderately deep but not too broad. At its deepest point the chest reaches to, or just above, the elbow. The brisket is well developed and the ribs are well sprung. The back is strong and straight and the loin is well muscled, taut, lean and narrower than the ribcage. There is considerable tuck up.”

Color,Jindos come in five colors:
White (baekgu)-This color is actually an off-white or ivory shade with tan or light brown around the tips of the ears, the back of the hind legs, and the tip of the tail. Some whites may have a subtle tan stripe running from the head, down the top line, to the tail.
Fawn (hwangu)-The color of well-ripened wheat.
Gray-This coat looks gray from a distance but is actually made up of individual white, black, and fawn colored hairs.
Black and tan-Black head and upper body with tan on the muzzle, belly, and paws, and an eye-shaped tan spot over each eye.
Brindle-Also known as “Tiger” pattern. Thin, dark brown or black stripes like a tiger’s, on a fawn base. These stripes appear at an early age.
Some Jindo Island residents value black, black/red, and red/white Jindos as good hunters.

Feet
The feet are of medium size, round in shape, with thick, strong tan pads. Nails are hard and may be black, cream or gray.

Gait
The Jindo moves with strides of moderate length.
It is a quick, light, elastic trot which enables the Jindo to travel quickly over any terrain.
The forelegs and hind legs are carried straight forward, with neither elbows nor stifles turned in or out.
At a normal walking speed, the Jindo tends to lower its head.

Head
The top skull of an adult dog should be broad and rounded between the ears and free from wrinkles.
The under jaw is well-developed and helps give a round or octagonal shape to the head when viewed from the front. Coarse hairs stand away from the cheeks.
The ears are triangular and upright (leaning forward past vertical). The inside of the ears should be well-furred. Ears on puppies normally lie flat until they are past 5–6 months.

The eyes are almond/round. They should be a shade of brown (a dark reddish-brown being preferred). Some dogs have light brown eyes but this color is not desirable. Jindos should not have blue eyes.

The nose should be black on non-white dogs. White dogs may have mottled portions of tan or pink in the center of the nose.
The muzzle is well proportioned without being bulky. The lips should be taut and black. The preferred color for the tongue is solid pink. Jindos can have blue-black tongues as does the Chow Chow and Sharpei but is not common.

The Jindo has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth with a scissors bite.

Typically, males have larger heads and females have more fox-like features.

Temperament
Baekgu (White Jindo)
Temperamentally speaking, The Korean Jindo Dog is well known for its unwavering loyalty and gentle nature. They are highly active and are certainly not indoor-only dogs. Jindo dogs need reasonable space to roam and run. Jindos require a lot of care and attention. If kept in a yard, the fencing must be at least 6 feet high due to their strong hind legs that enable them to jump high.

Because the Jindo is an active and intelligent dog, it requires frequent interaction with people or another dog in the family. For some the Jindo may even be too intelligent, for it will commonly think for itself. The same intelligence that allows the dog to learn commands and tricks very quickly can be a bit too much to handle. If left alone for a long stretch, it finds its own entertainment. A young Jindo may attempt to climb over a fence or wall, even by way of a tree or digging under, or tear up the house if confined indoors.


Hwanggu (Fawn Jindo)
Despite earlier comments as to search and rescue, and as police patrol dogs, the Jindo does serve as excellent watchdogs, able to distinguish family from foe, friends from strangers. The Korean Army is known to use Jindos as guard dogs at major bases. Because Jindos rarely bark aggressively, especially in familiar environments, an owner may lend special credence to the warning of his/her pet. Many Jindos do not take any food from anyone other than their owners.[6] Many Koreans consider Jindo Dogs as ‘gatekeepers’, loosely tied up near the front gate of the house in rural areas. Some Jindos display a curious aversion from running water and avoid situations that might get them wet. They let themselves be washed, although with great reluctance. Some may even be afraid of going out in the rain. Many Jindos would not want to cross a bridge over running water.

People adopt Jindo dogs because of their beautiful appearance, high intelligence, loyalty, and sometimes for their fighting spirit, then quickly realize that raising a Jindo dog to be a well-behaved member of the family takes a lot of effort and time. This character may come from the background that Koreans traditionally kept their pet dogs outside their houses. Indoor life would be a surprisingly new circumstance for this kind; Whenever you feel that your Jindos are out of control, it is strongly advised to enroll them in obedience school at 6 months old to avoid future liability. Potential owners who are prepared and determined to have an intelligent, loyal, but independent companion can adopt a Jindo dog.

Height & Weight
Desirable height at maturity, measured at the withers, ranges from 19½ to 21 inches(or 48 cm to 53 cm) for males and 18½ to 20 inches(or 45 cm to 50 cm) for females.
Weight should be in proportion to the height, giving a well-muscled, lean appearance without being too light or too heavy. The typical weight range for a male Jindo in good condition is 40 to 60 pounds or 18 to 27 kilos; for a female, 35 to 55 pounds or 16 to 25 kilos.

Tail
The tail is thick and strong and set on at the end of the top line. The tail should be at least long enough to reach to the hock joint. The tail may be loosely curled over the back or carried over the back in a sickle position. The hair on the underside of the tail is thick, stiff, abundant, and twice as long as the coat on the shoulders, which causes the hair to fan outward when the tail is up.

The Kintamani Bali Dog Of Indonesia

The Kintamani is a dog native to the Indonesian island of Bali. It is a popular pet for the Balinese and locally Bali’s only official breed and efforts are currently under way to have the dog accepted by the Federation Cynologique Internationale as a recognized breed. It is an evolving breed indigenous to the Kintamani region which evolved from the local Bali street dogs, which are rather a feral random-bred landrace distinctive to Bali.

A young Black Kintamani

Genetic studies have shown that, despite evidence to the contrary, the Kintamani dog is native to Bali. Thirty-one highly polymorphic short tandem repeat markers from Kintamani dogs, Bali street dogs, Australian dingoes, and nine American Kennel Club (AKC) recognized breeds of northeast Asian or European origin were compared. The Kintamani dog was identical to the Bali street dog at all but three loci. The Bali street dog and Kintamani dog were most closely aligned with the Australian Dingoo, more distantly related to AKC recognized breeds of Chinese origin, and most distantly related to AKC breeds from westernEurasia. Therefore, the Kintamani dog has evolved from Balinese feral dogs with little loss of genetic diversity.

These results come despite observable facts about the Kintamani Dog that make them more similar to breeds from elsewhere and which set them apart from the average village dog; facts which had lent credence to a local folk belief that the breed originated 600 years ago from the Chow Chow brought from abroad.

The Kintamani looks something like a mix between the Samoyed and a Malamute. They have long hair, a broad face, a flat forehead, and flat cheeks like Chinese dogs such as the Chow Chow and are amenable to life as a pet. Whilst many live much the same kind of life as an average village dog, they dig holes to nest their young and some live in small caves among the boulders around Kintamani. They are locally considered good-looking dogs are more often sought after as good pets. The Kintamani dog is gentle around people, yet retains enough assertive behavior to render it a noteworthy (but not vicious) watchdog.

The most desired coat color is white with apricot-tipped ears

The most desired coat color is white with apricot-tipped ears. Breeders often confine the dogs to cold dark caves near the Kintamani volcano, insisting it an essential step in developing the thick white coat. However, other coat colors, such as black, are accepted. Other common fur colors include beige.

The withers height of the female Kintamani dog is 40–50 cm, 45–55 cm for the male, about the same as the stature of the Bali street dog. The desired physical traits of the Kintamani dog include erect ears, forwardly curved tail held at the midline, medium to longhaired coat, almond-shaped brown eyes, and black skin pigment.

Bali street dogs come in many colors and coat patterns, and they are almost always shorthaired and straight- to curve- tailed. Both still whelp in burrows dug into the earth, a feral dog trait. However, a fiercely independent breed, Kintamanis can be aggressively territorial while at the same tender and affectionate with their own families. While most dog breeds are disinclined to climbing and heights, Kintamanis will climb across roofs and spend parts of the day happily installed sitting or sleeping atop a garden wall. They are light-footed and move freely, smoothly and lithely, and will bark when confronted with an unfamiliar sound or sight.

Kintamani dog are very familiar to its owner and family.

Genetic studies of the breed have shown that probably the Kintamani began with a Chow Chow 600 years ago. The Kintamani achieved national recognition as a distinct dog breed in April 2006. It is also possible that the Kintamani Dog came with the Javanese invaders from the kingdom of Majapahit in 1343 or with the Javanese refugees of the civil war in the 15th century.

But of all the hypotheses, about the origins of the Kintamani Dog, only one is really plausible: that sometime between the 12th and the 16th century a Chinese trader named Lee landed in Singaraja in Northern Bali, bringing with him a Chow Chow dog which bred with the local Balinese feral dogs. Lee later in settled in the Kintamani region and raised his family there. Evidence that the Lee family lived in Kintamani exists in the form of a Chinese temple in which people of the confucian faith still worship.

The Four Native Dogs of  Vietnam.

Save for the Phu Quoc Dog, there is little recorded history that provides a complete picture of these special breeds or their beginnings. Suffice it to say however, these are ancient breeds which have been and still are major elements of the Vietnam culture.

The Phu Quoc Ridgeback’s history has not been well documented. Enthusiasts and few experts believe that all Ridgeback breeds (including the Phu Quoc, Rhodesian, and Thai) originated in either Asia or Africa, due to their distinct ridge markings along the spine, though this has never been confirmed scientifically. It is also believed that, like the Thai Ridgeback, the Phu Quoc has been used as a carting, escort, hunting, and guard dog throughout its history due to its impressive appearance and muscular physique.

Phu Quoc Ridgeback circa 1915, then known as the Phu-Quoc Greyhound

According to old people on Phu Quoc Island, the dog was traditionally four main colours: spotted, black, yellow, and striped; however now the colours have become more varied. A mature dog is about 20–25 kg, with a small head, long neck, quite a long snout, thin yet long ears and dark speckles on the tongue. The body of tapering belly, straight legs and webbed feet, this allows Phu Quoc dogs to swim and run exceedingly well.

An important sign to recognize a true Phu Quoc dog is the ridge on its back, together with short, thin hair The Phu Quoc Ridgeback is best known for its ability to jump higher and run and swim faster than most other breeds. These dogs love to hunt and chase, and are also known for protecting their home. This breed is extremely loyal, loving, and naturally obedient, thriving on dependable human relationships. The Phu Quoc is an intelligent and curious breed that loves to learn.

Despite the lack of historical information, tere is no doubt that the Bac Ha breed from the Bac Ha Lao Cai province is like his three companion breeds, the Dingo Indochina, the Hynong Dog, and the Phu Quoc, is pure Veietnam Native dog. Of the four, the Phu Quoc is the breed mostly seen at any exhibition and as has been noted in the Thai Ridgeback history has its genetic origins arising from the early breeding that took place between the Thai Ridgeback and unknown breeds of the day. Not all of these dogs are shown.

Bac Ha dogs are often tall, have fuzzy and some dogs have beautiful mane

This breed has different hair colors such as black, gold, brindle, gray or black and white. A few have reddish hair. This breed is intelligent, easy to train and very disciplined.

Dingo Indochina is a primitive breed in the midland and mountainous areas of Vietnam

Hmong docked tail dog is an ancient breed of ethnic Hmong people in the mountainous area of northern Vietnam. They look stout, muscular, with funny amputated tails.

Good physical and very tough, Hmong dogs with short tails have the ability to adapt to different ecological conditions in a flexible way.

Due to the superior characteristics, this breed has been researched and trained by the Vietnam-Russia Tropical Center.

Phu Quoc is a famous breed of Phu Quoc Island (Kien Giang province) which has been used in the hunt for hundreds of years It has a number of characteristics that distinguish them from other breeds: spiral on the back, webbed feet, short and smooth coat.

Phu Quoc dogs are strong, run fast, and are flexible, can climb, jump, swim, and well coordinate with others.

While there has been a definite push forward into the major show scene by several of these Hidden Treasures of Asia, it is certain that some of the breeds presented here mat not be seen in the general run of the mill dog show scene for some little time due to their so far limited exposure outside of their own environment, and Government restrictions on exports to the outside world.

As time is not currently of the essence, I expect that the situation will change in the not too distant future. it is important to keep in mind that the world, and especially this Dog World of ours is really a very small place where change is on an almost daily basis, access to information increasingly becoming faster, and communication methods better than ever before.

Time will tell.

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